The agreement also provides tariff concessions for processed agricultural products. Commodities are covered by bilateral agricultural agreements, which are part of the free trade area instruments between the contracting parties. Qatar could have argued that Egypt was only one of the intended beneficiaries of the treaty – precisely the language used by the Quartet (“Commitments due to Egypt as a third-party beneficiary under the Riyadh agreements”: see id.) — but without the rights or obligations that accompany it. Therefore, while the other three members of the Quartet could strive to enforce the agreements, Egypt, as a outsider of the party, could not invoke them as part of measures or counter-measures. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that the ICJ will examine the issue in detail, given that Qatar does not dispute it; Egypt has also claimed to act within the framework of anti-terrorism treaties and UN Security Council resolutions, and not just within the framework of the Riyadh agreements; and because it would have little practical impact on the claims made by the other three members of the Quartet. The scope of the free trade agreement covers trade in goods (industrial and processed products, fish and other seafood), trade in services, public procurement and competition. With regard to investments and intellectual property rights, the parties agreed to negotiate these issues after the agreement came into force. Commodities are covered by bilateral agricultural agreements, which are part of the free trade area instruments between the contracting parties. The first two Riyadh agreements are full of references to the stability and security of the GCC member states, the signatory states. It was only in the third agreement that Egypt, which is not a member of the GCC, was mentioned for the first time, although the Quartet claimed that the references made to the Muslim Brotherhood in previous agreements related to the situation in Egypt. However, Egypt has not signed one of the three agreements, nor is Egypt a GCC member state.
The free trade agreements between the GCC and the free trade agreement contain a chapter on public procurement, which contains specific rules and principles that take into account and allow golf companies to participate in public tenders in EFTA states and vice versa. The aim of the chapter is to ensure and grant transparency and market access on the basis of the principle of non-discrimination such as questioning. The public procurement chapter discusses the procedures to be followed by a public body that procures construction goods, services and services above certain thresholds. Finally, on 16 November 2014, the six GCC heads of state signed the third Riyadh agreement (also known as the Riyadh Complementary Agreement). The third agreement confirmed the material provisions of the first two agreements and added two other important principles. First, it “emphasizes that the non-commitment of one of the articles of the Riyadh Agreement and its executive mechanism constitutes a violation of all of them.” Second, in 2013 and 2014, in the wake of the Arab Spring, Qatar signed a series of agreements under the auspices of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) to peacefully resolve disputes between itself and several states that will then form the Quartet. The existence and content of the so-called Riyadh agreements were the subject of speculation for several years before they were made public in 2017.