Thirty-four years later, the concept of “open skies” was reintroduced by U.S. President George H.W. Bush to build trust and security between all the countries of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact. In February 1990, an open-air international conference opened in Ottawa, Canada, with the participation of all NATO Pact and Warsaw Pact countries. Rounds of negotiations were then held in Budapest, Hungary; Vienna, Austria; Helsinki, Finland.  This is the first part of the agreement. In fact, this means that any airport in the European Union can fly internationally to any airport in the United States. Regardless of the country or nationality of the airline, as long as it is part of the EU, the United States recognizes it as Europeans. The Open Skies Treaty came into force on 1 January 2002 and currently has 34 party states. It is implementing a programme of unarmed air surveillance flights throughout the territory of its participants. The treaty aims to strengthen mutual understanding and trust by giving all participants, regardless of size, a direct role in gathering information on military forces and activities that affect them.
The idea of allowing countries to openly veil themselves is to prevent misunderstandings (for example. B to assure a potential adversary that his country will not go to war) and limit the escalation of tensions. It also offers countries mutual responsibility to deliver on their contractual promises. The Open Skies is one of the most important international efforts to date to promote the openness and transparency of the armed forces and activities. In November 2018, the UK reached an individual “Open Sky” agreement with the US, which will succeed the EU agreement after Brexit.  Azul Linhas Aéreas Brasileiras, LATAM`s rival, has openly announced its intention to create a joint venture with United Airlines, although the U.S. airline has been more cautious in such a move and has had a Star Alliance partner in Brazil at Avianca Brasil. United is a small shareholder of Azul with a 5% share. In addition to increased flights and lower prices, the Open Skies also paves the way for partnerships such as those discussed by American Airlines and Chilean group LATAM Airlines, opening up new opportunities for both airlines and business travellers.
Framework contracts, such as open skis, provide airlines with the stable regulatory environment they need to organize alliances, codeshares and cooperations to improve market efficiency and better serve customers. But open skies agreements are not without their critics. Although major U.S. airlines were initially skeptical of what they saw as a foreign threat to their market share, commercial opportunities brought them on board with most of these agreements. But there is still opposition to some open-ski compacts, especially in areas where competing airlines receive public subsidies. The Persian Gulf is a good example, where major U.S. airlines oppose competitors such as Emirates and Qatar Airways and accuse them of using state aid to distort competitive conditions. A recent agreement between Qatar and the United States focused on dispeling some of these concerns, with more transparency on the Qatari side than deterrence for unfair practices or subsidies.